England and Wales Census 2021 - RM195: Number of households in houses in multiple occupation (HMO) by type of occupancy rating (bedrooms)

This dataset provides Census 2021 estimates that classify households in England and Wales by number that are HMOs by occupancy rating (bedrooms). The estimates are as at Census Day, 21 March 2021.

Improvements to the Census address frame allowed us to accurately list multiple household spaces within the same building. This means the data are more often counted as distinct households within separate dwellings reflecting living arrangements. Read more about this quality notice.

Area type

Census 2021 statistics are published for a number of different geographies. These can be large, for example the whole of England, or small, for example an output area (OA), the lowest level of geography for which statistics are produced.

For higher levels of geography, more detailed statistics can be produced. When a lower level of geography is used, such as output areas (which have a minimum of 100 persons), the statistics produced have less detail. This is to protect the confidentiality of people and ensure that individuals or their characteristics cannot be identified.


Census 2021 statistics are published for the whole of England and Wales. Data are also available in these geographic types:

  • country - for example, Wales
  • region - for example, London
  • local authority - for example, Cornwall
  • health area – for example, Clinical Commissioning Group
  • statistical area - for example, MSOA or LSOA

Households of multiple occupancy (HMO)

A dwelling where unrelated tenants rent their home from a private landlord is a HMO, if both of the following apply:

  • at least three unrelated individuals live there, forming more than one household
  • toilet, bathroom or kitchen facilities are shared with other tenants

A small HMO is shared by 3 or 4 unrelated tenants. A large HMO is shared by 5 or more unrelated tenants.

Occupancy rating for bedrooms

Whether a household's accommodation is overcrowded, ideally occupied or under-occupied. This is calculated by comparing the number of bedrooms the household requires to the number of available bedrooms.

The number of bedrooms the household requires is calculated according to the Bedroom Standard, where the following should have their own bedroom:

  1. adult couple
  2. any remaining adult (aged 21 years or over)
  3. two males (aged 10 to 20 years)
  4. one male (aged 10 to 20 years) and one male (aged 9 years or under), if there are an odd number of males aged 10-20
  5. one male aged 10-20 if there are no males aged 0-9 to pair with him.
  6. repeat steps 3-5 for females
  7. two children (aged 9 years or under) regardless of sex
  8. any remaining child (aged 9 years or under)

An occupancy rating of:

  • -1 or less implies that a household’s accommodation has fewer bedrooms than required (overcrowded)
  • +1 or more implies that a household’s accommodation has more bedrooms than required (under-occupied)
  • 0 suggests that a household’s accommodation has an ideal number of bedrooms

Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Last Updated May 9, 2023, 10:50 (BST)
Created May 9, 2023, 10:50 (BST)
Visibility Public
Year 2021
Topics Accommodation and housing
Units Households
Geographic Layer Counties
Integrated Care Boards
Local Authorities
Local Health Boards
London Boroughs
Lower Tier Local Authorities
Metropolitan Districts
NHS England Regions
Non-Metropolitan Districts
Sub Integrated Care Board Locations
Unitary Authorities
Upper Tier Local Authorities
Frequency Decennial
DOI https://doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-2021-1
Citation Office for National Statistics; National Records of Scotland; Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency; UK Data Service. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5257/census/aggregate-2021-1
Geographical Coverage Location England and Wales
Granularity Country level down to LTLA
Geographic Spatial data {"geo_type": "polygon", "lat": "52.4036", "lon": "-1.93872", "left": "-6.53687", "top": "55.8275", "right": "1.98853", "bottom": "49.6694", "srid": null, "accuracy": null, "source": null}